The first major presidential foreign policy doctrine was created by James Monroe
on December 2, 1823. In 1904, Theodore Roosevelt
made a major amendment to the Monroe Doctrine. While many other presidents announced overarching foreign policy goals, the term "presidential doctrine" refers to a more consistently applied foreign policy ideology. The four other presidents included in this list of presidential doctrines are Harry Truman
, Jimmy Carter
, Ronald Reagan
, and George W. Bush
1. Monroe Doctrine
Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-16956
The Monroe Doctrine was a significant statement of American foreign policy. In President James Monroe's
seventh State of the Union address, he made it clear that America would not allow European colonies to further colonize in the Americas
or interfere with independent states. As he stated, "With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not ... and shall not interfere, but with the Governments ... whose independence we have ... acknowledged, we [would] view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing ... or controlling [them], by any European power ... as an unfriendly disposition toward the United States." This policy has been used by many presidents over the years, most recently John F. Kennedy
2. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Credit: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-13026 DLC
In 1904, Theodore Roosevelt
issued a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine that significantly altered America's foreign policy. Previously, the US stated that it would not allow for European colonization of Latin America. Roosevelt's amendment went further stating that the US would act to help stabilize economic problems for struggling Latin American nations. As he stated, "If a nation shows that it knows how to act with reasonable efficiency and decency in social and political matters, ... it need fear no interference from them United States. Chronic wrongdoing ... in the Western Hemisphere ... may force the United States ... to the exercise of an international police power." This is the formulation of Roosevelt's "big stick diplomacy."
Credit: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-88849 DLC
On March 12, 1947, President Harry Truman
stated his Truman Doctrine in an address before Congress. Under this, the US promised to send money, equipment, or military force to countries that were threatened by and resisting communism. Truman stated that the US should "support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." This began the American policy of containment to try and stop the fall of countries to communism and to halt the expansion of Soviet influence.
4. Carter Doctrine
Credit: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZCN4-116
On January 23, 1980, Jimmy Carter
stated in a State of the Union Address that, "The Soviet Union is now attempting to consolidate a strategic position, therefore, that poses a grave threat to the free movement of Middle East oil." To combat this, Carter stated that America would see "an attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region ... as an assault on the vital interests of the United States of America, and such an assault will be repelled by any means necessary, including military force." Therefore, military force would be used if necessary to protect American economic and national interests in the Persian Gulf.
5. Reagan Doctrine
Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library
The Reagan Doctrine created by President Ronald Reagan
was in effect from the 1980s until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. It was a major change in policy moving from simple containment to more direct assistance to those fighting against communist governments. In fact, the point of the doctrine was to provide military and financial support to guerilla forces such as the Contras in Nicaragua. Illegal involvement in these activities by certain administration officials led to the Iran-Contra Scandal
. Nonetheless, many including Margaret Thatcher credit the Reagan Doctrine with helping bring about the fall of the Soviet Union.
6. Bush Doctrine
Courtesy: National Park Service
The Bush Doctrine is actually not one specific doctrine but a set of foreign policies that George W. Bush
introduced during his eight years as president. These were in response to the tragic events of terrorism that occurred on September 11, 2001. Part of these policies are based on the belief that those who harbor terrorists should be treated the same as those who are terrorists themselves. Further, there is the idea of the preventive war such as the invasion of Iraq to stop those who might be future threats to the US. The term "Bush Doctrine" made front-page news when vice-presidential candidate Sarah Palin
was asked about it during an interview in 2008.